Mary Douglas





1. Biography

2. Books Authored

3. Co- Authored Books

4. Co-Edited Books

5. Edited Books

6. Articles

7. Articles About Mary Douglas

Contact Information



Born in Italy in 1921, educated at Oxford, I finished with a Ph.D. in Anthropology  in 1951.

My major research was in the (then, 1949-53)) Belgian Congo, later Zaire, and now the Democratic Republic of Congo. The first book on this work was published in 1963, The Lele of the Kasai. Most of my teaching life was in the Anthropology Department of University College London (1951-77). After four years in New York, four years in Northwestern University, and three years in Princeton, I retired  to England  and have been living in London ever since 1988.

            The philosophy and institutions of the Lele people have inspired my subsequent work. In the direct line of influence, I have worked continuously on the relation between beliefs and social organization, starting with Purity and Danger, an Analysis of Concepts of Pollution and Taboo, (1966), and  Natural Symbols, (1970). The Lele at that time had only recently encountered the money economy, which led me to try to learn some economics (thanks to a Leverhulme grant), and launched me into an anthropological critique of economic theory, (see The World of Goods, 1979). The Lele used to have severe problems of mistrust and difficulties in mobilizing support, which fired my interest in the question of solidarity. This concern surfaced in a book on organization, How Institutions Think (1986).

            With Aaron Wildavsky I co-authored Risk and Culture (1982), which developed a theory of risk perception derived directly from Purity and Danger. It was an attempt to apply to the then current debates about risk perception what anthropologists understand about perception of danger. In the seventies the current psychological theories on risk as a matter focused on the individual’s psyche, whereas anthropologists are primarily interested in social pressures to conform.  They try to think systematically about how an individual is influenced by the surrounding culture. The sub-title, ‘An Essay on the Selection of Technological and Environmental Dangers’ indicates the focus on selection. Some things that we are afraid of, other people do not fear; there are some principles which select the things we are prepared to take action to prevent.   The Lele were afraid of the sorcery of their neighbours, on very flimsy evidence, and afraid of being struck by lightening, a very rare event, but they faced other regular dangers calmly. Crudely: they, and we, take most interest in the dangers that can plausibly be blamed on someone. It is part of a general theory of the politicisation of nature. I followed this book with a literature review of risk perception, Risk Acceptability According to the Social Sciences  (1985) and eventually with collected essays, Risk and Blame, (1992).

             There are other influences that I received from living among the Lele.  Their dietary restrictions, and their classification of  animals as safe to eat or dangerous, originally turned my interest to the Mosaic dietary laws. From here it was a natural development to have been working for the last fifteen years on the law books of the Bible, and to reflect upon the Jewish dietary prescriptions (In the Wilderness, (1993), Leviticus as Literature (1999).

 In the background of these specific interests I have been working for a long time with a group of colleagues who are developing a two-dimensional model of cultural variation, (known as ‘Cultural theory’). My own abiding and central interest in the topic stems from suggestions I made in 1970 in Natural Symbols. We are concerned with the forms of social organization that crystallize collective thought, with the effect of empowering some behaviours and outlawing others. I believe that the social sciences cannot continue indefinitely to be satisfied with their strong individualist focus. There is a need for a way of organizing and systematically testing  individualist intuitions on morals and politics against  well-understood systems of cultural bias.


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Books Authored


  • 1950 Peoples of the Lake Nyasa Region (signed as Mary Tew)
         (International African Institute)


  • 1963 The Lele of the Kasai 1963, 1977 (International African   Institute)


  • 1966 Purity and Danger, Concepts of Pollution and Taboo
         1966, 1984, 1985, 1988, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995,
    1996, 1999, 2000 (Routledge).
         French: 1971, 1981 De la Souillure orig. Maspero, then

  • 1992 La Decouverte
         Italian: 1975, 1993 Purezza e Pericolo, Il Mulino
         German: 1970, 1985 Reinheit und Gefährdung, Dietrich Reimer,     Suhrkamp 1988 Pocket edition
         Spanish: 1973 Alianza, Simbolos Naturales;  1973 Siglo      Veintiuno de espana editores, Purez Y Peligro
         Dutch: 1976 Spectrum, Reinheid Engevaar
         Portugese: 1973 Perspectiva, Pureza Y Peligro
         Japanese: 1969 Kaigai Hyoron sha
         Serbo-Croat: 1991 Biblioteka XX Vek (Serbian Academy of   Arts and Sciences)
         Korean: 1999, Hyundai Meehak Press
         Norwegian: 1997 Pax Forlag A/S, Oslo, Rent og Urent
         Russian: 2000 Canon, Moscow

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  • 1970 Natural Symbols, Explorations in Cosmology (Barrie   and Rockliff, 1973 Pelican, 1978 Penguin; 1996 new edit.
    Routledge), 2003.
         Italian: Einaudi 1979 I Simboli Naturali
         German: (S. Fischer), Frankfurt, 1974, Ritual, Tabu und      Körpersymbolik
         Danish: 1975 Nyt Forlag Arnold Busck, Naturlige Symboler
         Dutch: 1976 Spectrum, Wereld-beelden


  • 1975 Implicit Meanings, Essays in Anthropology (1975, 1978,
    1979, 1984, 1999)(Routledge).
         Italian: (Il Mulino) 1985, Antropologia e Simbolismo


  • 1978 The World of Goods, Towards an Anthropology of                Consumption, co-author Baron Isherwood, (Basic Books),
    (1979, Penguin Books).


  • 1980 Edward Evans-Pritchard, (Viking and Fontana, Modern Masters)


  • 1982 In the Active Voice, Essays (Routledge).

  • 1985 Risk Acceptability according to the Social Sciences,
         (Basic Books, Routledge, Sage),
         Transl. Italian, Feltrinelli.


  • 1986 How Institutions Think, The F.W. Abrams Lectures
         (Syracuse University Press),
    French: (1989) Maison Usher, Ainsi Pensent les Institutions, new edition (1999) Comment Pensent les Institutions, La Decouverte/Mauss.
         Italian: Come Pensamo le Istituzioni, il Mulino, 1990.
         German: Wie Institutionen Denken, Suhrkamp, 1991.

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  • 1992 Risk and Blame, Essays in Cultural Theory, (Routledge).
         Italian: Rischio e Colpa, Il Mulino, 1992;
         Credere e Pensare (Italian translation of part of Risk
    and Blame), introduced by Luisa Leonini, Il Mulino, 1994.
         Objects and Objections, essays reprinted for the Toronto      Semiotic Circle, Monograph Series, 9, Editor M. Danesi


  • 1993 In the Wilderness, The Doctrine of Defilement in the Book     of Numbers, Sheffield Academic Press.
         (Italian translation in press).


  • 1996 Thought Styles, Critical Essays on Good Taste (Sage,
         Spanish version (Gedisa 1999).


  • 1999 Leviticus as Literature, (1999, 2000, 2002) Oxford University Press     
         French: L’Anthropologue et la Bible, Lecture du Levitique, Bayard, 2004


  • 2004 Jacob’s Tears, The Priestly project of Reconciliation
         (Oxford University Press, 2004)


  • 2006 Forthcoming, Thinking in Circles, an Essay on Ring
         Composition, Yale University Press.

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Co-Authored Books


  • 1979 with Baron C. Isherwood, The World of Goods, An Anthropological Approach to Consumption, (Penguin, Basic Books; 1996), Routledge new edit);
    Italian, Einaudi;
    German…. ; 1998,
    Turkish, DOST Kitabevi; 2002,
    Portugese, Brazil, UFRJ.


  • 1982 with Aaron Wildavsky, Risk and Culture, California U.P.


  • 1998 with Steven Ney, Missing Persons, A Critique of Personhood in the Social Sciences, California University Press

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Co-Edited Books

  • 1969 Man In Africa: Essays in Honour of Daryll Forde,              co-editor Phyllis Kaberry, (Tavistock Publications)


  • 1983 Religion in America, edited with Steven Tipton,
         (Beacon Press)


  • 1992 How Classification Works, Nelson Goodman among the Social Sciences, edited with David Hull, (Edinburgh University Press)

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Edited Books

  • 1964 Man in Society: Patterns of Human Organisation,
         (The Macdonald Illustrated Library)


  • 1970 Witchcraft Accusations and Confessions, ASA 9,
         (Tavistock Publications)

  • 1973 Rules and Meanings: The Anthropology of Everyday          Knowledge, (Penguin Reader)


  • 1978 The Illustrated Golden Bough, General Editor of the new   abridged edition, (Rainbird Publishing Group)


  • 1980 International Commission on the Anthropology of food and Food Problems. Statement on Its History and Current Objectives. Appetite 1, 317-320 (Academic Press Inc London Ltd)


  • 1982 Essays in the Sociology of Perception, (Routledge and
         Kegan Paul in cooperation with Russell Sage)


  • 1984 Food in the Social Order, Studies of Food and Festivities in Three American Communities, (Basic Books for the Russell Sage Foundation, NY)


  • 1987 Constructive Drinking, perspectives on drink from    anthropology, (Cambridge University Press)

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  • 1950 ‘Elicited Responses in Lele Language’, Kongo-Overzee,    XVI, 4: 224-227.


  • 1951 ‘A Further Note on Funeral Friendship’, Africa, XXI, 1: 122-124.


  • 1951 ‘A Form of Polyandry Among the Lele of the Kasai’,   Africa, XXI, 1: 1-12.


  • 1952 ‘Alternate Generations Among the Lele of the Kasai’,     Africa, XXII, 1: 59-65.

  • 1954 ‘Native Treatment of Leprosy in the Belgian Congo’, The Medical Press, March 17.


  • 1954 ‘The Lele of the Kasai’, ch. in African Worlds, ed. D.   Forde


  • 1955 ‘Social and Religious Symbolism of the Lele of the
         Kasai’, Zaire, IX, 4: 385-402.


  • 1956 ‘Primitive Economics’, chap. with D. Forde in Man,
    Culture   and Society, edit. Shapiro.


  • 1957 ‘Animals in Lele Religious Symbolism’, Africa, XXVII, 1:


  • 1957 ‘The Patterns of Residence Among the Lele’, Zaire, XI, 8:


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  • 1958 ‘Raffia Cloth Distribution in the Lele Economy’, Africa,
    XXVIII, 2: 109-122.


  • 1959 ‘Age Status Among the Lele’, Zaire, XIII, 4: 386-413.


  • 1959 ‘The Lele’, in The Church and the Nations, edited A.     Hastings, Sheed & Ward.


  • 1960 ‘Blood Debts Among the Lele’, Journal of Royal Anthropological Institute, 90, 1.


  • 1961 ‘Congo Tribes and Parties’, RAI Pamphlets, 1. (with D. Biebuyck)


  • 1962 ‘Lele Economy Compared with the Bushong’, in Markets in Africa, edited J. Bohannan: 211-233.


  • 1963 ‘Techniques of Sorcery Control in Central Africa’, in Witchcraft and Sorcery in East Africa, edited J. M. Middleton and E. Winter: 123-141.


  • 1964 ‘Matriliny and Pawnship in Central Africa’, Africa XXXIV, 4: 301-313.


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  • 1966 ‘Population Control in Primitive Groups’, British Journal
         of Sociology, vol. 17, No. 13, 1966: 263-73. Also in: Heredity and Environment, edit. A.H. Halsey, Methuen, 1977: 118-130.


  • 1967 ‘Witch Beliefs in Central Africa’, Africa, XXXVII, 1: 72-80.


  • 1967 ‘The Meaning of Myth’, The Structural Analysis of Myth and Totemism, ASA 5, edited E. R. Leach


  • 1967 ‘Primitive Rationing’, Themes in Economic Anthropology, ASA 6, edited R. Firth: 119-146.


  • 1967 ‘If the Dogon’, Cahiers d’Etudes Africaines, 28, Vol. VII: 659-671.


  • 1967 ‘Dogon Culture: Profane and Arcane’, Africa, XXXVIII, 1: 16-25.


  • 1968 ‘Social Control of Cognition: Factors in Joke Perception’, Man, (Sept.) 3.3: 361-376.


  • 1968 ‘The Relevance of Tribal Studies’, Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 12 June pages……….


  • 1969 ‘Is Matriliny Doomed in Africa?’, Man in Africa, Tavistock Publications, pages……


  • 1970 ‘Environments at Risk’ Times Literary Supplement, pages……


  • 1971 ‘Do Dogs Laugh? A Cross-Cultural Approach to Body Symbolism’, Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 15: 387-390.


  • 1972 ‘Deciphering a Meal’, Daedalus, Journal of American Academy of Arts & Sciences: Winter, Myth, Symbol & Culture, pages……


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  • 1971 ‘Deciphering a Meal’, Myth, Symbol and Culture, edited by
         Clifford Geertz, W. W. Norton and Company, New York,
         1971: 61-81.


  • 1972 ‘Symbolic Orders in the Use of Domestic Space’, Man, Settlement & Urbanism, edit. P. J. Ucko, R. Tringham, G. W. Dimbleby: 513-521. Duckworth ?.


  • 1973 ’Food Studied as a System of Communication’, Report to
    the DHSS (Unpublished). pages…?


  • 1973 ‘Critique and Commentary’, in: Neusner, J, The Idea of
         Purity in Ancient Judaism, The Haskell Lectures 1972-1973, Leiden, 1973: 137-142.


  • 1973 Grid and Group, in: Four Sociological Traditions, Elected
    Readings, edited Randall Collins, OUP, 1994: 271-280.


  • 1975 ‘The Sociology of Bread’, Bread: Social, Nutritional and
    Agricultural Aspects of Wheaten Bread, edit. Arnold Spicer, Applied Science Publishing Ltd. London. pages……


  • 1976 ‘Relative Poverty-Relative Communication’, Traditions of
    Social Policy. Essays in Honour of Violet Butler, edit.
    A. H. Halsey, Basil Blackwell, Oxford, 1976: 197-215.


  • 1977 Introduction of Jessica Kuper (Editor), The
    Anthropologists’ Cookbook, Universe Books pages……


  • 1978 Cultural Bias, Occasional Paper No. 35 of the Royal
    Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. pages……


  • 1978 Judgements on James Frazer, Daedalus, Fall (Generations)


  • 1978 Introduction in The Illustrated Golden Bough, add??Sir James Gordan Frazer General Editor Mary Douglas of the new abridged edition, (Rainbird Publishing Group), 1978: 9-15.


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  • 1979 ‘World Views and the Core’, Philosophical Disputes in the
    Social Sciences, edit. Stuart Brown, Harvester Press and Humanities Press. pages……


  • 1979 ‘Les Structures du Culinaire’ (translated from 1976-7,
    Report of the Russell Sage Foundation) Communications, 31: 145-170.


  • 1979 ‘Passive Voice Theories in Religious Sociology’, The 1978
    Paul Douglass Lecture, Review of Religious Research, Vol. 21, No. 1, Fall 1979.


  • 1979 ‘Culture’, Psychology Today, (Published originally in
    Russell Sage Foundation Annul Report, 1977-78). pages……


  • 1980 Introduction to Halbwachs’ The Collective Memory,
    (translated from the French by Francis J. Ditter, Jr. and Vida Y. Ditter. Harper Row) pages……


  • 1980 ‘International Commission on the Anthropology of Food and
    Food Problems: Statement on its History and Current Objectives’, with R. S. Khare. Appetite I: 317-20.


  • 1980 ‘Purity and Danger Revisited’, a lecture delivered at the
    Institute of Education, London, May 12, 1980 and reprinted in the Times Literary Supplement, Sept. 19, 1980: 1045-6.


  • 1981 ‘High Culture and Low’, review of Pierre Bourdieu’s La
    Distinction, in the Times Literary Supplement, Feb. 13, 1981: 163-4.


  • 1981 ‘Food and Culture: Measuring the Intricacy of Rule
    Systems’, with Jonathon Gross, Social Science Information, 20, 1: 1-35.


  • 1981 ‘Nature et Pureté’, le débat, Editions Gallimard, Mars
    ’81, no. 10. pages……


  • 1982 ‘The Effects of Modernization on Religious Change’,
    Daedalus, Winter 1982: Religion, Vol. III, No. 1 of the Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences: 1-19.


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  • 1982 Introduction to the New Edition of Natural Symbols,
    Pantheon Books, pages……


  • 1982 ‘Food Stuff’ for Times Literary Supplement, Nov. 5, 1982.


  • 1983 ‘An Appreciation of Meyer Fortes’, African Studies
    Newsletter, Northwestern University, Feb. 11, 1983, pages……


  • 1983 Book Review of Margaret Mead: A Voice for the Century, by
    Robert Cassidy, Nature, June 1983, pages……


  • 1983 Book Review of The Lord’s Table: Eucharist and Passover
    in Early Christianity by Gillian Feeley-Harnik, American Ethnologist pages……


  • 1983 Review essay of the works of Mayer, Needham, Sanday and
    Midgeley, ethics, July 1983. pages……


  • 1984 Review of Culture and Morality by Elvin Hatch for Ethics,
    April 1984


  • 1983 Forward to Risk Analysis and Decision Processes: The
    Siting of Liquified Energy Gas Facilities in Four Countries (edited) Howard Kunreuther and Joanne Linnerooth, Springer-Verlag, N.Y. pages……


  • 1983 ‘How Identity Problems Disappear’, Identity-Personal and
    Socio-Cultural, Uppsala University Press, Uppsala, Sweden pages……


  • 1985 ‘Anthropology and Comparative Religion’ co-author Edmund
    Perry, Theology Today, Jan. 1985, Vol. XLI, No. 4. pages…


  • 1985 ‘Pascal’s Great Wagner’, L’Homme, 93, Jan-March 1985, XXV
    (I): 13-30.


  • 1984 ‘Betwixt, Bothered & Bewildered’, New York Review of
    Books, Dec. 1984: 43-46.


  • 1984 ‘Nature, the Measure of Women’, an Introduction for English version of Yvonne Verdier’s book in press, Pantheon, 1984. pages… underline Pantheon?


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  • 1986 ‘Institutionalized Public Memory’, The Social Fabric: Dimensions and Issues, edited by James F. Short, Jr., Sage Publications, Beverly Hills, 1986: 63-76.


  • 1987 “Sorcery Accusations Unleashed: the Lele Revisited”,
         1987, Africa, 69, 2: 177-193.
         “Os Lele Revisitados, 1987, Acusaçoes de Feitiçaria à Solta”, Mana, 5,2, 7-30. 1999.
         “Toverij en missie bij de Lele”, Gezichten van het kwad, 2000, Vol.1 : 62-80.


  • 1988 ‘Complexité culturelle: cuisine et société’, Societes,    No. 19, 1988: 6-10.


  • 1989:

    "The Hotel Kwilu -- A model of models", American
    Anthropologist, 91 (4): 855-865.

         "Correttezza delle Categorie", Rassegna Italiana di Sociologia, XXX,2:208-237.
         "No Free Gifts", Introduction to new edition of Marcel Mauss, Essai sur le Don, Routledge, French version: "Il n'y a pas de don gratuit", La Revue du MAUSS, 4, 1989:99-115.

         "Institutions of the Third Kind", with James Douglas,     Journal of General Management, 14,4, 34-52.


  • 1990:

    "Risk as a Forensic Resource", Daedalus: Risk: 1-16.

         "Le Corps Cosmique", Histoire des Villes, 125, Revue Internationale des Sciences Sociales: 439-442.

         "Thought Style Exemplified: the Idea of the Self", German Year Book of Comparative Social Research, Berliner Institut fur Vergleichende Sozialforschung: "Die Idee des Selbst - Ein Beispiel von Denkstil".

         "Signifying Animals", Human meaning in the Natural World, Editor Roy Willis, One World Archeology, Unwin.


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  • 1991:

    "Witchcraft and Leprosy: Two Strategies for Rejection",
    Man, 6, 4:723-736.

         "The Idea of a Home: a Kind of Space", Social Research,   58,1:288-307.

         "My Circus Fieldwork", Semiotica, 85,3/4: 201-204.
         Dutch translation, 1997, Foerder, Ipsberg and Jablonska.

    "Ralph Bulmer among the Master Detectives: the proximity principle", Man and a Half: Essays in Pacific Anthropology and Ethnobiology in Honour of Ralph Bulmer, Edited Andrew Pawley, The Polynesian Society,
    Auckland: 193-198.

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  • 1992:

    "The Person in an Enterprise Culture", Understanding the Enterprise Culture, Edited Shaun Hargreaves Heap and Angus Ross, Edinburgh University Press: 41-62.

    "In Defence of Shopping". Produktkulturen, Dynamik und Bedeutungswandel des Konsums, Edited R. Eisendle and E. Miklautz. Campus Verlag: 95-116;
         Republished 1997, in The Shopping Experience, edited P.Falk and C. Campbell,Sage Publications, 1997,15-31.

         "Hierarchie et Voix de Femmes", Philosophie et Anthropologie. Espace International, Philosophie, Centre Georges Pompidou.


  • 1993:

    "Hunting the Pangolin". Comment, Man, 28,1: 161-165

         "Balaam's Place in the Book of Numbers", Man, 28,3: 411-430.

         "The Forbidden Animals in Leviticus", Journal of Old      Testament Studies, 59: 3-23.
         "Emotion and Culture in Theories of Justice", Economy and      Society,  22, 4: 501-514.

         "Good Taste", TLS....?

         "Un point de vue anthropologique", Dossier et Forum, les Conventions: Reseaux, 62: 117-119.

         "Aaron Wildavsky", The Times, Obituary. Sept. 24th, 1993: 21.

         "Governability: A Question of Culture", Millennium, Journal of International Studies, Vol.22, No.3, dedicated to Aaron Wildavsky: 463-481.

         "A Quelles Conditions un ascétisme environnementaliste peut-il réussir?", La nature en Politique, ou l'enjeu philosophique de l'ecologie", edited Dominique Bourg, Association Descartes, Paris, L'Harmattan.

         "The New Asceticism: The effects of Culture on Environmental Issues", Association Descartes, Paris.
         "El nuevo ascetismo: cultura y medio ambiente", Revista de Occidente, Oct. 137: 9-54. (reprinted in Thought Styles, 1996)

         “Eschewing the Fat” Food Faddism in the light of global famine Social History TLS July 30


  • 1994:

    "Atonement in Leviticus", Jewish Studies Quarterly, 1, 2: 109-130.

         "The Glorious Book of Numbers", JSQ.1, 1993/4,3: 194-     216.

         "Holy Joy: Rereading Leviticus; The Anthropologist and    the Believer", Conservative Judaism, Spring vol.XLVI,    3: 3-14.

         "The Genuine Object", The Socialness of Things, edit. Stephen Riggins ??

         "The Stranger in the Bible", English version for Archives Européennes de Sociologie, 1994, XXXV, No.2: 283-298. Italian version for Modena Carlo Institute, Ossimori.7, 1995, 124-33.

         "Dominant Rationality and Risk Perception", Political and Economic Research Centre Occasional Papers, 4: 1-4, Sheffield University   


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  • 1995:

    "Di Fronte allo straniero: una critica anthropologica  
    delle scienze sociali", Il Mulino. XLIV, 357: 5-24.

         "The Cloud God and the Shadow Self", Social Anthropology, Vol.3, Part 2: 83-94.

         "Red Riding Hood: an Interpretation from Anthropology
         Folklore, 106: 1-7.

         "The Construction of the Physician", The Healing Bond, edited U. Shurmer, and S. Budd, Routledge.

         "Forgotten Knowledge", ASA Decennial, Shifting Contexts Transformations in Anthropological Knowledge, edited Marilyn Strathern, Cambridge University Press: 13-30.
         "The Pale Fox", L'Autre et le Sacré, Surrealisme, Cinema, Ethnologie, edited Christopher Thompson, Harmattan: 199-218.

         "To Honour the Dead", edited G. Dench, Tony Flower and Kate Gavron, Young at Eighty, The Prolific Public Life of Michael Young, Carcenet: 209-15.

         "The Poetic Structure of Leviticus", Pomegranates and Golden Bells,Studies in Biblical, Jewish, and near Eastern Ritual, Law and Literature in Honor of Jacob Milgrom, edited David P. Wright, David Noel Freedman and Avi Hurvitz: Eisenbrauns, Indiana, 239-256.

         "Acceptance, Bernal Prize 1994" Science Technology and    Human Values, 20, 2: 262-266.

         "Demonology in William Robertson Smith's Theory of
    Religious Belief", Robertson Smith, Essays in Reassessment edited by William Johnstone, Sheffield Academic Press, 1995: 274-292.

         "The Gender of the Beloved", edit. Thomas Deidun,
         The Heythrop Journal, A Quarterly Review of Philosophy and Theology; For Robert Murray on his Seventieth Birthday, Oct.1995, Vol.36, No.4: 397-408.

         "An Anthropologist asks, What could women be doing in the Church?" New Blackfriars, 77, 899, 28-39.

         "The Language of Emotions in the Social Sciences", Greek Economic Review, 17, 2: 167-176.

    “La casa come comunita virtuale”, co-authored with Gabriele Pallotti, Rassegna Italiana di Sociologa, 36, 2.


  • 1996

    "Children Consumed and Child Cannibalism: Robertson Smith's Attack on the Science of Mythology", for Myth and Method, edited Wendy Doniger and Laurie Patton, University of Virginia Press: 29-51.

         "Sacred Contagion", Reading Leviticus, edited John   Sawyer, Sheffield Academic Press: 86-106.
         "Review Colloquium: In the Wilderness", Religion, 26: 69-
         "Losses and Gains", The Faces of Charity, edited J.B. Schneewind, Dept. of Philosophy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore.

         "Istituzioni" Enciclopedia della Scienze Sociale: 126-134


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  • 1997:

    Review article: "The Body as Text: Resurrection of the Body in Western Christendom, 200-1336" by Caroline W. Bynum, Commonweal, cxxiv, 3: 23-25.

         “Knowing the code” Demos Collection 12. Escaping poverty: from safety nets to networks of opportunity (Demos) 

         “A Course off the MenuThe Times, August 22

    The Shopping Experience, edits. Pasi Falk and Colin Campbell,


  • 1998:

         "Human needs and Wants" chapter in Human Choice and Global Climate Change, edited Steve Rayner and  E. Malone, Battelle, Boulder Col.

         "La Pureté du Corps", Un Corps Pur, Terrain, 31: 5-12.   
         "Two Books on God", Discussion, Review of Jack Miles, God, a Biography,  Richard Friedman, Disappearance of God, a Divine Mystery, Religion, 28,65-69

    Le Décideur en personne, une affaire de conventions, Décisions Économiques, F.O.R.U.M.


  • 1999:

    "Franz Steiner, a Memoir", Taboo, Truth, and Religion, Franz Baermann Steiner, Selected Writings Vol.1, Edited J. Adler and R. Fardon, Berghahn Books, 3-15.
         "A Bird, a Mouse, a Frog and Some Fish: a New Reading of Leviticus 11",  Literary Imagination, Ancient and Modern, Essays in Honour of David Grene, Edited Todd Breyfogle, University of Chicago Press, 110-126.

         "The Eucharist: Its Continuity with the Bread Sacrifice of Leviticus", Modern Theology, Vol.15, No.2: 209-224.

         "Four Cultures: the Evolution of a Parsimonious Model", Geog. Journal, 47, 415-15.

         "Culture Clash in American Anthropology", Book review of A. Kuper, Culture, the Anthropologist's Account, in Nature, 400, 12 Aug.
         "Justice as the Cornerstone", Interpretation, Holiness and Purity, Oct.53, 4,341-350.
    "Memory and Selective Attention: Bartlett and Evans-Pritchard", Bartlett, Culture and Cognition, edited Akiko Saito, Psychology Press, 179-193.

         ‘Impurity of Land Animals’, Purity and Holiness, The Heritage of Leviticus, edited by M.J.H.M Poorthuis & J. Schwartz, Brill, Leiden, 1999: 33-45.

    Can a scientist be objective about her faith? Priests and People, Vol.13, No.10, October 1999: 383-385.


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  • 2000 “Los Riesgos a los que se Enfrenta un Técnico de Prevención de Riesgos”, Mary Douglas, Revista Empresay Humanismo, Navarra, 2000, 2/01, 267 – 290.


  • 2002:

    ‘The Compassionate God of Leviticus and his Animal Creation’, edited by Martin O’Kane, Borders, Boundaries and the BIBLE, Sheffield, 61-73.

    “A Feeling for Hierarchy”, Marianist Award Lecture, Dayton

    “Being Fair to Hierarchists”, University of Pennsylvania Law Review, Pennsylvania, 2003, 151/4, 1349 – 1370.

    “Responding to Ezra: The Priests and the Foreign Wives”, Biblical Interpretation, Leiden, 10/1, 1 – 23.

    ‘Shandean Mirrors: Puzzles of the Master Analogy’, The Glass, No.14, 2001-2002: 15-28.


  • 2003:

    “The Go-Away Goat”, The Book of Leviticus: Composition and Reception, edited by Rolf Rendtorff & Robert A. Kugler, Boston, 121 – 141.

    “Terrorism: A Postive Feedback Game”, with Gerald Mars, Human Relations, edited by Paul Willman, London, 2003, 56/7, 763 – 786.

    “The Gender of the Trout”, Mary Douglas, Anthropology and Aesthetics, edited by Francesco Pellizzi, RES, 2003, 44, 171–180.

    Mary Douglas, contribution to Ricks’s Dicta: Short Stories for Christopher, Kent, 2003

    'Is Time Running  
    out? The Case of Global Warming', with Michael Thompson and Marco Verweji, Dædelus: Journal of the American  
    Academy of Arts and Sciences
    (Vol. 132, No. 1, 2003), pp. 98-107.


  • 2004:

    “Traditional Culture: Let’s Hear No More About It”, Mary Douglas, Culture and Public Action, edited by Vijayendra Rao & Michael Walton, Stanford, 85 – 109.

    Review of “Shamanism: The Neural Ecology of Consciousness and Healing”, Michael Winkelman, Bergin and Garvey, 2000, Journal of Ritual Studies, edited by Pamela J. Stewart & Andrew Strathern, Pittsburgh, 2004, 18/1, 96 – 128.

    Review of “How the Bible Became a Book”, W.M. Schniedwind, Cambridge University Press, 2004, The London Review of Books,  

    ‘Why I have to learn Hebrew: The Doctrine of Sanctification’, The Comity and Grace of Method (Edmund Perry), edited by Thomas Ryba, George D. Bond and Herman Tull, Northwestern U.P. Evanston, Illinois, 2004:  147-165.

    ‘Qu’est-ce que l’impurité?’, Bibla, No. 31, 2004: 22-23.


  • 2005 ‘A feeling for Hierarchy’, Believing Scholars, edited by
    James L. Heft, Fordham, 2005: 94-120.


  • 2006:

    'Clumsy Solutions for a Complex World: The Case of Climate  
    Change', with Marco Verweij, Richard Ellis, Christoph Engel, Frank
    Hendriks, Susanne Lohmann, Steven Ney, Steve Rayner and Michael Thompson, Public Administration (Vol. 84, No. 4, 2006), pp. 817-43.

    'The Case for  
    Clumsiness', with Marco Verweij, Christoph Engel, Frank Hendriks, Susanne Lohmann, Steven Ney, Steve Rayner and Michael Thompson, in Marco Verweij and Michael Thompson (eds), Clumsy Solutions for a Complex World: Governance, Politics and Policy (New  
    York: Palgrave, 2006).

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Articles About Mary Douglas


  • 1000 Makers of the Twentieth Century, Sunday Times, 1991


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